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In addition, several varieties are available that include 2 "dots," which allows the differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. During acute HIV infection, prior to the appearance of antibody window period or pre-seroconversion , HIV infection can be confirmed only by the demonstration of circulating p24 antigen, or by the presence of viral RNA or DNA. The cut-off values for different tests vary.



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This control is an antihuman immunoglobulin that binds any immunoglobulin in the sample and produces a separate indicator when all reagents are added appropriately.



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Therefore, it is important to recognize slightly high negative readings and suggestive indeterminate results by HIV-1 tests, and consider evaluating the serum using HIV-2 tests. Sensitivity — the percentage of the results that will be positive when HIV is present Specificity — the percentage of the results that will be negative when HIV is not present.

Appendix 3: How HIV tests work

Quality assurance encompasses all measures, from receipt of specimens through final reporting, to ensure that the final results are as accurate as the assays allow. In these settings, individuals to be screened for infection are of higher risk groups than the blood donor population, and thus require the use of testing methodologies with high levels of analytical sensitivity to detect primary infection.

There are a number of factors that influence rapid tests differently from the way they influence ELISA-type tests. In reference to samples that show inconclusive results eg, indeterminate Western blot results , a follow-up specimen in months is the most effective means for resolution. Although highly sensitive antibody assays exist to detect very low levels of HIV antibody in blood, the window period prior to appearance of antibody rarely can be shortened to less than 3 weeks. These tests can be classified into those that:

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Comments
  1. Intact IgG antibodies are found in urine, but their exact origin is unknown. Accuracy of medical tests are often described in terms of:

  2. In such a case, an initially reactive sample, when tested with the routine sensitive , becomes nonreactive when diluted in a modified less-sensitive assay.